Normal and Pathological Pigmentation

Pigmentation is a discoloration of the oral mucosa
or gingiva due to the wide variety of lesions
and conditions. Oral pigmentation has been
associated with a variety of endogenous and
exogenous etiologic factors.1,2 Most pigmentation
is caused by five primary pigments. These
include: melanin, melanoid, oxyhemoglobin,
reduced haemoglobin, and carotene.3 Others are
caused by bilirubin and iron

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