Immediate Implant Placement and Provisionalization Using a Customized Anatomic Temporary Abutment (CATA) to Achieve Gingival Margin Stability

 
Scott Ross, DDS; and Gregory A. Pette, DMD, MS
Case Report
The following case report focuses on a technique that, beyond achieving implant integration, aims to attain proper emergence profile development with the goal of minimizing recession in a fresh extraction site in the anterior esthetic zone.
A 56-year-old woman presented to the authors’ office after having fractured off the clinical crown portion and post on tooth No. 10 (Figure 1)
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. The remaining root had an unfavorable prognosis and was nonrestorable, as seen in the radiograph (Figure 2).
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The adjacent teeth all had full-coverage restorations, leaving the proposed replacement of tooth No. 10 a highly demanding esthetic challenge. The proposed treatment was for extraction of the remaining root followed by immediate implant placement, immediate placement of a customized anatomic temporary abutment (CATA), and fabrication and cementation of an immediate provisional restoration.
Surgical Protocol
The patient was given 2 grams of amoxicillin 1 hour prior to surgery and instructed to take 500 mg t.i.d. for 5 days. For postoperative analgesia, Dolobid (500 mg) was utilized two times a day (b.i.d.) for 2 days following completion of surgery. Initially, tooth No. 10 was extracted with a flapless approach under local anesthesia. The extraction socket was then thoroughly curetted and examined with bone sounding. It was determined that a fenestration was present on the labial aspect of the socket. A full-thickness flap was then elevated on the labial aspect for access to thoroughly debride and subsequently perform bone grafting to the fenestrated labial plate. Preparation of the implant site was then completed following Nobel Biocare’s (surgical drilling protocol along with the use of a surgical guide for precise restoratively driven implant placement. The surgical guide was fabricated from an impression taken preoperatively.
Implant placement location was based on the tri-dimensional implant protocol.14,18,38 The implant platform was placed 1 mm to 2 mm to the palate of the extraction socket and was centered mesial distally and approximately 3-mm apical to the proposed cementoenamel junction (CEJ) of the final restoration as it relates to the existing gingival margin.43 Excellent initial implant stability was achieved (greater than 35 Ncm).44,45 The implant placed was a 4.3-mm x 13-mm NobelReplace® Select™ Tapered Groovy® (Nobel Biocare) with a significant portion of the implant body being exposed due to the fenestration found on the labial (Figure 3);
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The seven exposed threads of the implant were grafted with a freeze-dried bone allograft (FDBA) (Figure 4)
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and a collagen resorbable barrier membrane (Ossix® Plus, OraPharma, Inc., was placed (Figure 5)
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Restorative Protocol
Following the placement of the implant and completion of the surgical phase of the treatment, a stock polyether ether ketone (PEEK) temporary abutment (Nobel Biocare) was used with an auto-cured composite (Systemp®, Ivoclar Vivadent, www.ivoclarvivadent.com) to develop a CATA for a cement-retained provisional restoration (Figure 6).
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The composite was added to extend over the entire length of the temporary abutment and allowed to auto-cure to a solid state. The CATA was then contoured as it was passively seated into the implant without encroaching on the gingival tissues. With the unfinished CATA seated into the implant, it was then marked for the gingival contour, location of the gingival margin, and desired length, with occlusal clearance and room for a provisional restoration in mind (Figure 7)
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The CATA was then removed and shaped to create the appropriate emergence anatomy, exactly mimicking that of the tooth extracted. In establishing the desired emergence profile, the focus was on not over-contouring the composite and thus compromising the gingival contours, as this could lead to future gingival recession.38,39,41,46 The facial contour of the CATA was either flat or under-contoured. The majority of the contouring was completed out of the mouth (Figure 8).
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Once properly contoured, the CATA was then hand-tightened to approximately 15 Ncm to the implant. Using either a diamond or a fissure bur with copious water, the final preparation of the CATA was then completed, achieving gingival margin contour on the labial interproximal and lingual for final margin placement. The composite margin was prepared to approximately 0.5-mm supragingival for the provisional crown margin access to ensure total removal of excess cement (Figure 9).
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Vinylpolysiloxane (VPS) impression material was then placed into the abutment orifice and covered with a composite material to create a solid abutment complex. A provisional restoration was then fabricated and cemented using routine crown and bridge procedures (Figure 10).
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Cement was easily accessible, as the abutment margin–provisional interphase was supragingival, allowing excess cement to be readily removed. Special attention was given to verify that no occlusal contact with the opposing teeth existed either in intercuspal position or upon any excursive movements. Then, 5-0 chromic gut sutures were placed to adapt the surgical flap in the desired position. The radiograph of the implant, CATA, and provisional restoration showed a radiolucent space at the implant–abutment connection (Figure 11).
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This radiolucent space at the implant–abutment interface was due to the lucency of the PEEK material of the temporary cylinder.
Follow-Up and Final Restorative Protocol
The patient was given oral hygiene instruction and was advised to avoid any function on this implant provisional restoration for approximately 3 to 5 weeks.47 The patient returned to the office for follow-up visits at 1, 3, and 6 weeks, and at 3 months. At the 3-month visit, implant restorative procedures for the final implant crown were initiated. Waiting 3 months enabled the emergence profile to develop and achieve stability, ultimately allowing for excellent soft-tissue contours.48-51 At this time the abutment and provisional crown were removed, revealing excellent soft-tissue development (Figure 12)
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. A fixture level impression technique was used to capture the emergence profile developed with the CATA; this was the first time that the CATA and provisional restoration were removed. This allowed for maximum stability and maturation of the gingival complex and emergence profile. Utilizing a customized fixture level impression technique allows the exact shape of the created emergence profile to be duplicated for the laboratory phase. This technique involved placing a straight profile closed tray impression coping (Nobel Biocare) (Figure 13)
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and then placing light-cured flowable composite in the gap between the impression coping and the gingival complex (Figure 14).
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The laboratory was given an impression that exactly matches the developed emergence profile. A patient-specific Procera® Zirconia abutment (Nobel Biocare) was then fabricated to exactly replicate the specific emergence profile. The abutment was then placed and torqued into the implant (35 Ncm) without putting pressure on and compromising the gingival complex (Figure 15).
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An optimally contoured ceramic crown was fabricated and cemented (Figure 16).
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The 5-year follow-up showed excellent stability of the soft-tissue complex with no gingival recession (Figure 17) and excellent bone levels (Figure 18).
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The immediate functional and esthetic result was extremely satisfactory to the patient.
Conclusion
Success of implant dentistry in the esthetic zone is now judged by the integration of the restoration with the gingival complex, along with the development of the soft-tissue emergence profile and sustaining it over time. Various techniques, both surgically and restoratively, are being developed to accomplish this goal. Strong consideration should be given to the implant–abutment–restoration interphases. This aspect can greatly alter the shape of the emergence profile and ultimately affect the esthetic outcome.
The purpose of this article was to present a novel technique that enhances implant placement by establishing proper subgingival contours in the abutment phase. By doing so, the proper emergence profile can be developed and sustained in the gingival complex. This technique has a significant clinical effect when an implant is immediately placed with an immediate provisional in a fresh extraction site. The exact shape of the pre-existing emergence profile (extraction site), or the proposed emergence profile desired, can be optimally contoured into the CATA, and ultimately the final abutment. By utilizing a properly contoured CATA, accurately copying the developed emergence profile with a custom implant impression technique, and transferring this into the final abutment contour, significant reduction in gingival margin changes can be achieved. This stability of the soft-tissue complex then increases the potential for a more acceptable and desirable esthetic outcome. This technique of utilizing an immediate cement-retained provisional restoration also resembles a more traditional crown and bridge approach, which is user-friendly to most restorative dentists.
The success of this case is not only related to the proposed technique but also proper case selection for immediate placement/provisionalization in the anterior esthetic zone. Some clinical situations, including inadequate primary implant stability, hard or soft tissue deficiencies that could compromise long-term implant survival and esthetics, and when there are concerns about patient compliance, may not be appropriate for this technique and must be recognized during treatment planning.

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